Microorganisms are an important source of a large number of bioactive compounds that have become a significant contribution to the production of drugs, chemicals, and biofuels. These secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are the maximum amount found by the extraction of microbes. With the advent of current knowledge in metabolic engineering, protein engineering, and synthetic biology which enable us to redesign microbial cellular networks and fine-tuning physiological capabilities that can be generating industrially viable strains for the production of natural value-added bioactive compounds.

They are chiefly used in the biopharmaceutical industry owing to their potentiality to reduce infectious diseases in human beings and animals and thus increase the life expectancy and also microorganisms and their products inevitably play a significant role in sustainable agriculture development. In this chapter, we describe the recent progress on microbial factories for the synthesis of value-added products.